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亲朋棋牌2020年05月22日08时24分41秒

时间:2020-06-03 01:49:24 作者:链家网 浏览量:14636

复制网址领彩金【ag88.shop】bjw8 WqtVMhQKOver 4,500 peo\ple \planted some 20,000 tree\s i/n /the【 P\ortug】uese capital on \Sun】day.The\ initia\tive was L【is/bon'\s fir【】s【t a】s the European G【reen Capita/】l 202【0.The city is 【aiming to be a hundred percen\t carbon-neutral by 2【050 and aims\ to【 p\lant 1/00,000 trees thr\oug/h】out t】he year."Tree planting helps【 to c【oun/teract\】 one of t】h【e mos/t 】negative effects of cli\mate/ change and global wa】rm\ing, \whic/h is the heatwav【es," Lisbo/n Mayor Fernando【 Medina told repo【rter/s. "When th/ese kinds of ar【eas are 【planted, 】the surrounding【 temperature can drop by three to five degrees centigr\a】de."Apart fro\m【 the 【tit/le,\ Lisbon won a financial prize of/ 350】,000 e\uros from the【 Europea\n \Com/miss/ion】 to kick-start its green capital year.】】"Get organized 【as you hav】e /been 】but【 even mor】【e so 【that you force us the politicians t\o do the right things," European Com/mission/ Vice-【President/ Fran【s Timme\rmans t\old the /audience at the opening】 】c\e【remony to launch the Lisbon initiative.Time to end the【 war\ on natureAt the same c\eremony th【【e UN】 S】ecretary-General, Anton【i\o Guterres, who is Port\uguese, said it was time to get serious about the plane】t./"【\This /ye【ar, in 2】020, we must pr【ovide【 the p【roo/f t【hat we want to end the war】 th/【at humanity ha\/s launched against nature," said Guterres】.Portugal's pres】ident, Marcelo Rebe】lo de \Sousa, says his cou【/ntry】 is betting on green, betting】\ on the environment【 and betting o\n facing 【clima\te change a【\nd \g\loba\l war\ming.To that end, Lis】bo】n will be launching en【vironme【ntal initiatives t【hroughout 2020.Share this artic】l\eCopy/paste the articl/e 】video embed【 link belo\w:C\opyShareT【weetSharese【ndShareTwee】tShares】【endMoreHideSh】areSendShareShareSh/are\SendShareSh\areYou might also like 】 】 \ 【 Land ahoy! Greta Thun】berg arrives in Lisbon \/after Atlantic cr】ossing /【 【 【 Want to fig\ht climate ch/a【nge? Start with challenging your/ mayor and【 your /neighbo【urs 】t【o act【 ǀ 】View \ \ 】 \ 】 \ 】】 The EU co\uld face a wo\r】se p】andemic than COVID-19 if it 】waters down its Green Dea】l ǀ View 】 【 】 Mo】re aboutEnvironment/al【 protectionclimate changeGlo/【bal wa\rming and climat【e】 changeLi/【sbonClim】\ateHot TopicLearn mo\/re about 】 Glo\bal \warmi【ng and climate change Hot Topic】Learn more about Glo/bal warming a】nd cl【imate chang/e 】 / Browse】 today's t】agsrjzV

tZOtText sizeAaAaA\s on【e/ of the o【r\ganisations aiming to】 tackle marine plast/ic pollution, the \S】eychelles Is/l【a【nd Foundation【 has just\ 】released a video 】(click on \the player/ abo】ve) proving that e/ven 【the most remote corners 【o\f the ocean are suffering from the horrors of plastic waste and【 endang/e【red a【nimals. UNES\】CO World He/ritage Sites】 are no exception/. 】It is/ claimed that【 【if the present】 tren/d 】contin/ues, 】oce【ans \could con\tain 】more plastic than fish by 50.\/From bag/s 【to bottles, a/round 13 million tonnes of 【p】lastic flows int\o our oceans eve】ry/ year, acco\rding to a rece/nt UN report. Marine spe/cies ingest or become entangled in plastic de\bris, sometimes cau\s】ing injury or even death. The UN says 100,0/00\ marine animals die each y】ear d\ue to /plastic related causes.On【 many African【 i\slands, /\including the Seychelles, a growing num】/b【er of 【steps】 have bee】n implemented as envi【ro】nm【entalism and tourism ha\ve 】to go hand in hand to protect the /future of th】ese areas.】Click o【n the video【 above to see how】/ \the l\o/cals are abo/ut to s\ave one of the wo/】rld's/ most exclusive \destinations as well as part of 】the /Indian Oc\ean.Share this article】 】 Mo/re from places5Mge

ORpfHow to make your start-up busi/ness sus\tainable from day onezuH04eZ0

vtwhWhen it【 comes to cleaning 【up 】the \Oceans, tec【hn/ology may be good b\ut education is even better0nSI

wrEFPush to /restore one of 【Europe's/ o\ldest Riversq2ZL

ofQdTide turns f/or an Italian coas\tal wa/steland【/Wfiv

Do e【nvironmental documentaries actually have an impac【t on p【eople’s bad】 ha/bits?

0QMVNow the【】 blame /game \over Brexit appear【s to be in f\ull swing, in Brus/se【ls, they'r】e \starti【ng to kis\s goodby\e to the idea of /an orderly exit by th/e UK on October t/he 31】st."T\o 【put things v】ery fra【nkly \and t\o t\ry and be object】ive, on this parti\cular 【point, we are not r【eally i】n a position where we are/ able /to\ find an agreement."Ea】rlier in the day the EU Commi】ssion spokesperson 】tweeted that emotions are running high, but that the EU】 wants a 】deal.Also i/n town】, suppo】r/ter of a unified Ireland, Sinn F&eacut\e;in's Mi\chelle O'Neill from Northern I【reland. C/oncerne【d about the UK【's sugges【tion of cu【stom】s chec/k】s】 to re】place to c】ontroversial Ir/ish backsto【p."We’re here to make the case f【or /why I/reland nee/ds to be protected. /We【&rs\quo;re /h/ere /to ma】ke the case for o【【ur peace process/. Tha\nkfully, the】 Eu/ropean \Union has been co【nsistent t/hroughou/t the Brexit debate in standing up for the Goo【d】 Fr】/iday 】agreement, and we expect them to hold to th】at toward the end of this【 negotiation. Clear】ly we look li【ke we&rsquo【;re mo【ving toward a clif】f /edge\ Br】exit."T】he UK's Brexit secretary Stephen Barclay will 】spen【d Thu/rsday in 】B/russ\el】s with his【 /EU counterpart /Michel Ba【rn【ier.Talks r\es【umi\ng \amid fadi/ng hopes 【\for comp】romise【s 】on either sid\e."On the whole, the escalting communicat\ion\ \hasn'【t\ been very helpful and i thi】nk it\ has /damaged goodwi【ll and【 the lit】tle\ bit of trust that was l【eft," says Larissa Burner - European Policy Centre.Pressure【 on /Boris John】son the【n】 in/ the\ run u\p next week's summit of】 EU lead】ers.It'll be h\i/s first 】visit【\ to/ Brussels as prim/e ministe】r and the 27 other E】U leaders will col【lectiv\ely \gri/l\l him on what's【 he had【【 to say.Share this ar【ticleCopy/paste 】the article \video embed\ lin】k【 below:Co/pyShare/Tw】eetSh【ares\endSha/reTweetShare\sen】dMoreHideShareSendShareShareShareSen/dShare【ShareYou might also like 【 \ / 【 T\he week in Euro\pe: 【how is the bloc faring in t/he coronavirus fight? /】 /】 】】 【 / Green mayor calls /】for Pari\s to ban outdoor heaters amid \CO】2 concerns 【 \ / 【\】 / The \B/rief: fund】i】ng Europe�】39;/s green ambit【ions / More/ abo】utCl】imateE\nvironmental pro】tectio/n】Fossil fuelsHot 】Topi\cLearn more about Climate Ho】t Topic\Learn mo/re abou\t Climate \ 【 【/ Browse toda】y&#/039;s t【agsVMvq

fIx5Fi】nding gold i【n t【he gu【tt\ers of 【BrusselsVqor

7SXOIs o\】cea】n acidification driving e/cos】ystems\ t/o unknown territories?uWA9

b0CY【The Green Revol【ution - fast【e【r, cheaper and more eff/icient teles\copic w/indt【urbines 【6LtW

BgR6Danish billio\n】aire plans to b/uild idyllic vil\lage in【 Sc\ot/\land to stop land】 becomi//ng de\relictSnMY

Vk3QThe l【ingering death of the Dead Sea0IiY

AfMUAn international ag\reeme\nt signed in 2018 pre【ventively banned all【】 commercial fishing】 in \the【【 】Central Arct【ic Ocean —【 long befor【e any 】fishi【ng could /\real】istically begin. Why was that ban necessary, and how can marine biologists 【ta/ke advantage of】 planned po【lar/ expedition\s to/ f/ind out more about future fishing prospects in the Arct【/ic \high seas?Dr. Pauline Snoeijs 【Leijonmalm, Professor of Marine Ecol【o】gy a【t S】tockholm University, talked to E/uronews hours before lea【ving Troms&os】lash【;, Norway onbo\ard the Po\larstern\ icebreaker f【or the MOSAiC \expedition at the Nort\h Pole.She bega/n by explaining【 \w/hy we n】eed a fishing ba\n in the region:“We don/’t kn【ow a】nything abou【】/t 【the ecosystem,【 and\ we don’t kno【w anyt】h【ing about which fish we\ have! It’s a very /nutr【i/e】nt-poor ecosystem,\ so I expect ver/y little fish. And then if you st【art fishing, th【en you can destroy the ecosy/stem, or th/e balance of the organisms."MOSAiC Exped/ition'/s research camera【Once th】e/ ic】e disappe】ars, there \could be a ru\sh to fish\ t\he are【a\, which lies outside the exclusive eco】nomic zon\e of th【e\ coastal countries“\So that’s 】why we ne【】ed to kno\w】 now what /we have in this sea that perhaps can be/ exp/loited by anyone," P】rofessor Leijonmalm explains.【 "And 】】of course, we need prot【ectio】n for this are【】a. So what we’re going to do i【【】s to build\ a way to protect thi\s ar【ea 【by c/】ol/lect【ing b【ase】line【 data.&l/d【q/uo;We】 are at the very/ beginning of this/.\ What we are doi\ng is now mappi/ng, and this is t\he first expedi\t】ion tha】t&rs\quo;s going to map. And \the big advantage of conn【ecting\ to such【 a big exp/edition is t】hat we get all the environmental data【】 from the ship’s 】program &】mdash;】 s/o we【 do no】t need to】 /\measure the】 chlorophyll /our【se】lves, or the 】【nutrients, or not【 even th\e zooplan【】】kt】on. We \need o】nly to look【 a】t the fish】, and the other data【 we can use, and connect then】 the fi】sh data t\o. /So that’s/ a very big adv【\a【n\tage of these【【 big expeditions./&rdqu【o;/Pol】arstern ic/ebreaker sets sail】 for the North PoleShare thi\】s art/】\icl/eCopy/pas【te th【e /article video embed \link \below:Cop\yShareTweetShar【esen【dShare\T\w【eetShare【sendMoreHideS】hareSendShareShare/Sha】reSendSha\reShareMore aboutGlobal warming and climate changeFisheryArcticEnviro【nmenta/l protectionGreenland / Mo】s】t v\iewed 【 Wh【at i\nfluence on climate】\ is the cor/o/navirus lockdown really having? \ 【 】 】 】 \ 】 / The new AI system s\【【af【eg【uarding prematu】re【 /babies from infectio】n 】 \ 【 Messe\nger RN】A: the molecule that ma/y teach our bodies to \beat cancer 【 /\ 】 \ App/le\ and G】o\【ogle 】say they'll wo/rk \togethe【r to 】trace sprea\d of cor【onavirus via smartphon】es 【 】 \ \ How EU funding /is ch/ang】ing the face 【o/f Latvia\n innovation 】 】 】 【 \ Bro\wse today/'s【 ta\gscw4e

NhctThe ef\fort to end pla\stic pol/lu】tion in our oceans was /one of the【 /【key th】【emes of 2018, \wi【th Europea\n【 Un【io\n lawma【kers \ending the ye【ar with an \agr【eement to ban【 certai】n single-use 【plas】tics by 2021.Mic【r】opla/stics c】an 】affe】ct microscopic animals' ability to feed and the【】】ir ability to repro/\】duc【e Dr Matt /Cole 【/ Marine Plas【tics/ Re】search Scientist,】 Plymouth M\arin/e Laborato/r【y /Be/l】gian 】MEP Fr&eacu/te;d&eacut】e;\rique【 【Ries 【is behind the law, and t】【old Euron【ews: "Th/e balloon \sticks, the stirrers, the cotton buds, the straws, the 】plates are going to be b【anned】. And 】why \are \they going to be banned?【 Beca【u】【se t【he【y \a【re the /a\rticles that you mostly f\/ind on our beaches, /and/ on/\ our oceans, and becaus【e 【there are alternatives."A【 central issue in the single-use plastic ban is who is going to pay. The new European di/rective means fishin/g ge\ar \manufacturers will/ be】ar the cost\s of collecting ne/ts lost at】 sea, rather than the f/is/hermen.】The 】s【ame k【ind of principle is【 \being 】applied to the tobacc/o \industry and its \plast\【ic\ cigarette ends.However industry body Pla】sti\csEurop【e argues the responsibility/ should be sh】ared more widely.Executi/v\e Direc】\tor Karl Foerster explained\ th【eir posit】ion to Eur【one/w/s【: "We make the raw material, so that's our responsibili/ty, t/hen you have somebody t【hat makes /the product, then you have the c【onsum【er b/rands/ that p\】ackage any food in it, t【he people consume 【it and b\uy it \in a re/tailer, so you see t【he\re a\re many 】play【ers that are invo/lved i/n the life-cycl】e of a product\."An estimated 8 million tonnes of 【p】/last\ic waste end【s up in \th】e\】】 oce/ans every year. 】The EU's ban is【【 significant in terms o\f s】/etti\ng a policy precedent, /but it won't \change\ the seas ver【y 】much, as/ 90% of the p\la】s/tic pollution is【 believed to com/e from 10 rive【rs - 8 in As/ia, /and \two in Africa."The plastics become micro\plastics in \the oceans and ar\e eaten by marine animals. 【Dr Ma】tt Cole, a Marine Pla】stics R/es\earch Scie\nti\st at P\lym】outh\/ M\ar\ine Labo\ratory, tol【d \Euronews that all【 creatures gr【eat and small are affected. "What we've been able to identify (is) t\hat in very small plankt/onic microsco/pic animals, that the microplastics can/ effect their ability t\o feed,/ their a【bil/ity to\ re/produc【e and also their sur/vival," he 【says. "Other \researchers have d/one th\e same/ kind of work on oys】ters, mus\cles and fish, and also 】shown vario/us negati/ve impacts that th】ese plastics ca/n have on】 these animals."Along【【side】 the sin【gl/e【-use plast/ic【s// ban there are other\ e【fforts being made to sol【ve the p/roblem.This ye【ar/ The Ocea/n 】Cleanu/p deployed thei\r first system aime\d at catching large\r plastic【 w\a】ste in the Pacific for recycl/ing.Jou\rnalist name • Jeremy WilksShare this articleCopy/【paste the article \video embed link below:Cop【yShar/eT】weetSharesendShareTweetSharese\ndMore/H】i\deS】hareSendSh/areShareSh】areSendS】hareShar【\】eYou might also】 like 【 /】 \ 】 \ 【 I【ta【lian ban【 o/n plastic cotton 】buds 【comes into ef/fect 【 】 \ 】 】 / \ 【 【 Scotland bans si\ngl【e-us\e coffee cups in gov【ern【ment buildings【 】 / 】 \ Greenpeace: Single-use pl/astic\ h【as to stop 【 \ More aboutEco/l\ogyEnvironmental protectionPollutionEuropean politicsplastic【 Browse today's ta【gsSwq4

2iavIt【】 sits o\ff the coast of Nor】mandy,【 l【ooking like 】a f\airytale castle flo/ating on】 the water.】But for years, the Mont/ Saint Michel ha】s lost a part of its \mysterious solitude【, due t\o an accumulation of /】silt at the island's base.The concret】e causeway\ that conn\ected the island to the ma【inla】\nd pre\/v/ented the wa\te\】r /from flowly /fre】ely aro【und its base.But, no】w 】the sit】e ha\s begun to reclaim its island-like appearance during cert/a【in high tides.\Research on the proje】c\t start\ed in 1995, an【d continued /for more than/ 10 years.】 It then took another 10 year/s to complete th\e majo/r structural/ changes.\【Mar\ie-Agnés Po\ussi/er-Winsb/ack/, Vice-Presi/dent \of Normandy Regional【 【【Council【, said: "【T/hes\e works had【 two aims. First【ly【, to make sure 】that the island/ /coul/d, once a】gain, b\e what it 【wa【s duri】ng previous 【centuries, that is, surro【】unded by the sea and not s\an【d and silt. And second】ly, 【to\ improve\ the】 way we /ma/nage touri【sm."The \main work undertak】en w】as the remov\al of the\ concr/ete causeway. I/t】 was replaced/ with a brid】ge on stilts, the/refore allowi\ng water【 】to trav【el un】derneath it. It conn\ects to an area of solid gr【/ound that becomes sub/mer\g\ed dur/ing high \tide.Th\e o//ld dam o\n the Co【u/e【snon【 w/\as al【so 【d\emol】i\s【hed, and replaced wi\th /a\ new eig/h【t-gated structure that reg【ulates the 【flow between 】the river 】and the sea, which meet in t/h】e ba/y】.Romai】n D/esgu&e】acute;e, who【】 manages the ne】w d【am, explained to E\urone/ws how it works】."The 】old dam was th\ere to limit floodi\ng 】and mar/ine \flooding. The n】ew dam obvi/ously continues to do so, bu】】t it will regen【erate t/he hydro\logi\cal curren\t in the r【iver to erode the sediment. This will【 rem【ove \the sand t【hat accumulated at the 】base of Mont S】aint M】ichel," \he said.To complete th】is facelift, the car parks at t【he/ foot of the island【 h\ave been\ remo/ved, and it can no/w only be reached by a】 free shuttle bus, horse-drawn/ c【ar【riage, or by foot.More t】han 2.5/ m】illion tourists visit the World He/ritage Site every year, but the】 new 【c【hanges m/【e】an that tou【】r】 guid】es【 have had to adap\t.H【ug】o Poulet, a /gu【ide /】【for Les C】he\min\s de la】 Baie, vis\its the bay【 several 【times a da\y with groups of tourists. He /said that \the structural ch\anges have ha/】】d\ an e【ffect on his wor【k."Since the w\orks hav】e finishe【d, the ground leve】l has drop【ped, 【the sea is moving【 faste\r and no\w 【we \have 】the Cu\esnon pa【ss【ing on 】e/a/\ch side. \We do shorter outing【s, we adapt to\ th【e sea and we manage to 】juggle】\ tha】t,"【 he 【said.The project cost a total of /&【euro;184 mi【llion. Of th】at, €85 million was funded by the Fre\nch government, and €21.5 million was financed by the EU's cohesi】on 【pol/icy,】 w\hich took charge of part of the co/nst\ruction of the dam and its hydraulics.1212121212121212Share this articleCopy/past\e the article video embed l\ink below:CopyShareTweetShare\sendShareTweetS】haresendMoreHideShareSendSh】areShareShareSendShareSh/areMore aboutMont-Saint-MichelEnvironmen/tal protectionTou】rismFrance【 \ 【 \Browse today/9;s tagswNtr

YNizI/nside Bu\dapest's \green new campus5rxf

wkazYou’ve heard of offs\ett\ing, but】 what in the w【orld is carbon ins/etting?743u

C5E4Watch back: 【Greta T\】hunber\g says /she/】9;s not nervous a/s she gets ready for America【s tripSVZu

dZGzEu/ro\】pe ha【s a \plas【tic problem\, o【\nly 30% of plastic wa/ste is re/c【ycledNZHL

MPlsOver 4,500 peo\ple \planted some 20,000 tree\s i/n /the【 P\ortug】uese capital on \Sun】day.The\ initia\tive was L【is/bon'\s fir【】s【t a】s the European G【reen Capita/】l 202【0.The city is 【aiming to be a hundred percen\t carbon-neutral by 2【050 and aims\ to【 p\lant 1/00,000 trees thr\oug/h】out t】he year."Tree planting helps【 to c【oun/teract\】 one of t】h【e mos/t 】negative effects of cli\mate/ change and global wa】rm\ing, \whic/h is the heatwav【es," Lisbo/n Mayor Fernando【 Medina told repo【rter/s. "When th/ese kinds of ar【eas are 【planted, 】the surrounding【 temperature can drop by three to five degrees centigr\a】de."Apart fro\m【 the 【tit/le,\ Lisbon won a financial prize of/ 350】,000 e\uros from the【 Europea\n \Com/miss/ion】 to kick-start its green capital year.】】"Get organized 【as you hav】e /been 】but【 even mor】【e so 【that you force us the politicians t\o do the right things," European Com/mission/ Vice-【President/ Fran【s Timme\rmans t\old the /audience at the opening】 】c\e【remony to launch the Lisbon initiative.Time to end the【 war\ on natureAt the same c\eremony th【【e UN】 S】ecretary-General, Anton【i\o Guterres, who is Port\uguese, said it was time to get serious about the plane】t./"【\This /ye【ar, in 2】020, we must pr【ovide【 the p【roo/f t【hat we want to end the war】 th/【at humanity ha\/s launched against nature," said Guterres】.Portugal's pres】ident, Marcelo Rebe】lo de \Sousa, says his cou【/ntry】 is betting on green, betting】\ on the environment【 and betting o\n facing 【clima\te change a【\nd \g\loba\l war\ming.To that end, Lis】bo】n will be launching en【vironme【ntal initiatives t【hroughout 2020.Share this artic】l\eCopy/paste the articl/e 】video embed【 link belo\w:C\opyShareT【weetSharese【ndShareTwee】tShares】【endMoreHideSh】areSendShareShareSh/are\SendShareSh\areYou might also like 】 】 \ 【 Land ahoy! Greta Thun】berg arrives in Lisbon \/after Atlantic cr】ossing /【 【 【 Want to fig\ht climate ch/a【nge? Start with challenging your/ mayor and【 your /neighbo【urs 】t【o act【 ǀ 】View \ \ 】 \ 】 \ 】】 The EU co\uld face a wo\r】se p】andemic than COVID-19 if it 】waters down its Green Dea】l ǀ View 】 【 】 Mo】re aboutEnvironment/al【 protectionclimate changeGlo/【bal wa\rming and climat【e】 changeLi/【sbonClim】\ateHot TopicLearn mo\/re about 】 Glo\bal \warmi【ng and climate change Hot Topic】Learn more about Glo/bal warming a】nd cl【imate chang/e 】 / Browse】 today's t】agsg8x3

1.JyTqText sizeAaAaThe d/ebate arou\nd the sustainability of le\a【ther p\rodu】ction is g【ai/ning m【omentum in th【】e fashion/【 industry. In 】recent y【ears, ra/ising awareness around the\ ecological impact o】f producin/g le】athe】r i/tems】 has prompt\ed a gro【w】】ing number of brands to rec\onside】r their u【se of the fa【bri】c in】 th】e/ir fashio【n lines/, as well as it has【 pushe/d new actors to \co】me up w\ith innovative solutions to creat\e more ecol【og\ically-【fr/】iendly le\ather/.The ec】ologica【l cost of leather productio】nT/he initial r】aw\ material for l\eather 【producti】/on is animal【 skin\ which orig【inates from ani】mal farming, a pro】ce\ss w\h【ich】 【usually rel】ie【s on huge amounts of feed, pasturel/and【, water, and】 fossil fuels with ne/gative ecologic\al impacts. However, leathe【r /is 】on】l】y a by-pro/duct in thi】s process, the animals being primarily raised for their me\【at/.Where/ the e【nvir【onmental cos/t of leat】her product\io\n really beco】mes visibl【e is at the /stage of the\ transformatio【n of the animal skin into the f】inal prod/uct. Since /leather is a perishable material, a number 】of methods have been used to st【abi【//lise t\【he raw mate【ri\al, and make it m\ore durable via t/h【e tanning process.This 】】is an indus【trial process that【 typically involves 【many ch\e】mical com】pounds and uses up a lot of water and energy. A number of hazardous mat\eri/】als a\nd /p】ollutants are/ releas\ed i】n 】the envir【onmen【t s\uch 【as mineral salts, lime slud】ge, sulfides, fo\rmaldeh\yd\e, coal-tar de/ri【vatives, a】nd various oil【s, dyes, and finishes (some o/f them cyani【de-bas【ed) are employed. . Water \i】s u【sed in】 high quantit】【y as a s/olvent, which is all the more problematic that a significa【nt n【umbe\r of tan【neries/ are lo【cate】\d in ar\id regions \of the world.To a】ddress these i【ssues, \the dev\elopment of new technologies t【o\ 】provide】 more ef【fici\ent processes for【 the pr\oduction of le】ather【 is under】way. So are efforts to promote the production of synth】etic leath\e\r, /w/hi】c/h could offer an interes【ting【】 alternative to th【e fas/hi【on indu【stry.Cow lea】\ther vs synthetic leatherFor 】change 】to happe】n in the leather i/ndustry tho】ugh, rob/ust assessme/nts of t\he/ dif/feren】t m】ethods us\ed in the ta【nn】ing process/ and compari\sons betw【ee\n cow lea】ther an\d other materi】als, are ne【ed\ed.Researchers have assessed the e【cological impact of different ta【nning methods to se【e if on【e was prefe】rable in t【】erms of its environment/al footprint.】 One o】f the techniques 【that some tanneries \employ to reduce the u【se\ of harmful che】micals is to 】resort to vege/table-tann【i【ng.This is an artisanal process that tak/【es advantage of /the t】an【ni\c acids na【】turally found i/】【】n some pl\】ants, by using the/ barks, branches,】 lea【ves or even s】\ome fruits in s/ome specific te\chniques. 【It is /【t\houg【ht to be more 【environmental/ly friendly than oth/e/r methods of processing /cow l\eather.To find out more,/ a 2017 stu【dy comp【a\r/ed this 【m【eth/o/d to more t\radit\ional 【methods using chemi】\cals suc\h a【\【s c/hromium-】/tanning, looking at th\e carbon, water, and energy 【footprint o\f the vege】\table】 】and chromium leather pro】ces/sing 】technology in 12 selecte/d tanneries in seven dif/ferent coun】/tries worldwide.The scientists act【【u】a【lly fo【und no sign/if【ican】t d\iff【erences in the fo【otpr【int of vegetabl/】e 】and chromium leather processes. Ho【wever, they cauti】on that this type of research is /challenging to do and /that tak/i】ng steps to improve the leather ind/ustry need to be base\d\ on evidence\-based resea\r【ch.“\Each tannery proved to be 【very individual, a\nd the\refore 】att【empting to pe/rform this type of analysis /without si【mply producin/g【 meaningle【ss generalities is 【a cha\llenge\ f【or companies, researcher\s, and regulator/s,&r】dquo; the 】researchers say. While【 /there is/\ little evide\nce \then that cho】osing a spec\ific m【ethod of leather tanning may be 【bette\r fo【】r the environment, \the evidence in favour of producing syntheti\c lea\ther ins】tead of leat】【her from /an\imals i\s mounting.Th】e 201】【 Pulse of T【he 】Fash/ion Industry Report published by the Global】 Fashion Agenda and The Bos/ton Con/\s】ult【ing Grou/p, was instrumental in highlig【ht【ing the\ idea that the prod】uctio/n/ of 】synthetic leather i\s less d】amaging /to the \environment/. It offer/ed 【some \of th【e most robus【t 】conclusions 【o】n th/e subject to date,】 p【ro】mpting\ 【stake】holders in the】 fashion indus/t\ry to switch to more ecological options, including synthetic leat【he】r【.Th】e /rep】o【rt indee\d/ showed \that among /all the materia】ls used in the fashion \ind】ustry, an】imal leather ranked thi【rd as the main contributor to global\/ warmi\ng. I【t also came first as the 【most damaging mat【erial/ when resea\rchers looked 【at th\】e issue of eutrophicat【】ion : its man【ufa】ctu【re was【 associated w】ith a relea/se of excessive chemical compounds and nu/trients/ into bodi【es of w】ater, frequently due to runoff from】 th【e land, causing\ dense growth of plant l\if【e\ and deat\/h /of 】anima【l\ life from lack of 【oxygen.More impor】tantl【y, the report found that synthetic leather /had on average on】ly /【a third of the environme】n】tal \impact of【【 cow leather. 】Switching to/ alternative materi】\【/a\/ls, including synthetic leather【, could thus directl\y improve a p\roduct&rs【quo;s 】ecological foot/prin】t.Gro】wing number of initiativesThe \mes【s【age【 has progressively\ been recei\ved\ and a growing numbe\r of initiatives i/llustrat】e the mo/ve to abandon cow l】eath】er for its synt】hetic a【lternatives. Exa\mples of a\dva/nces rely o【n the development a】nd the us【e of non/-convent/iona/【l fib/e\rs made fr【om substances /su【ch as c/itrus/ juice, grape 】plan/ts, or kelp, bioengin/eered \/leather, and the furt】her【 /promotion of bast f【ibers.In its m】】o/st re\ce/nt 2018 edition, the Pulse of Th【e Fashion In/dustry Report presen【te\d a num\ber of projects carri/ed by companies dedicated to su\stainable fashion and t【o pro/ducing synthetic【 le【at【her at the lowest ecological c/ost.Mi\lan-based compa【ny Vegea \is fo\r in【stance working to crea【te leather that is 】m/a【de entirely fr【o【m【】 grapes skin, stalks, an\d seeds and for th/is, it【 won th【e 20】17 H&M Global Change Award. Another good e\xa【【mple is the company known 【a】s 【Provenance Biofabrics which pr】oduces b】ioengineere【d leather【 by pr】ogramming /collagen molec】ules to self-assem\ble.These are 】just some of the initiative【s/ under d\eve【lopment, \and the f/i】eld is now undergoing a period of inno】】va【】tion and dynamism】. /Exactly】 what 2019 will bring is 【uncle【ar】, \b【ut one thing is cer【tain\ : the leather industry 【is/\ profoundly changing to b/ecome more sustainable.Writer: L\éa Su【rugueShare th】is article 【 】 More from styleTwB5

2.SqaKHow Western wi/ll Sa】udi Arab【ia go t\o【 attr】act tourists?lZfo

3.ZLEMHow technolog/y i\s infl\uen【cing th】\e future of food and housing - whilst res】pecting/ the envi\ronmentLv87

4.lJQsEasy【Jet unveils plans to become world&】#0//9;s first carb/on-】neutr】al airlinesnMb

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SQy5T【ext size】AaAaW】ith a p【icnic packed sa//fe\ly in my bag, awa【y from the enquiring noses of the many dogs I me/t along 【the route, I\ set off ac【ross Far\thing Downs and Happy\ V】alley to \explore the South L/ondon Dow/ns with the promise of a pub at th/e end o/f my 4 km wa【\lk. Almost immediately, I【 had to 【ste】p aside for a/ ra\pidly approaching horse 】and rider as they scrambled up 】the \cha\lk【 emba【nkment. Spr\awlin\g/ vie\ws of forest】s\ and sheep-dot/【ted fields were my reward as I /completed the short walk from Coulsdon S\outh St【ation up/h\ill\ to r【each \th【e top of /Farthing Downs. There is n\o doubt you are still within Gr/eater L】ondon; the rigid archite/ctu/ral figures of the City are a /jarring sigh\t amo\ngst the soft hills that frame /\them. 】It doesn’t feel like it, though, as yo/u de\scend into th】e valley and the nature\ reser【ve/ be/gins to envelop you in its lu【sh remoteness.Takin\g a break in Devilsden Woods&c】【/opy; Helene Je【unet/Eurone/wsWhilst in the process of pla/nning my walk I had discover///ed that this co/llection o】f parks is made up of 】multiple】 S\ites of Spe】cial Sci\】entific In】\tere/st (SSSIs), ext/【remely rare/ 【chalk g\rasslands that can/ be as diverse in species as a r【ainforest. The London Wild】life\ Trust st【ates that, thanks to changes in land use, an estimated 80%】 of th/is habitat has been lost in the/ last 60 ye【ar/s.On the hottest da【y of 2019 so far and just a week befo\re my vi】sit, \a s【peci】al ceremony we\lco【me】d this collecti【on o】f green spaces into London&\rsquo;s col】le】c】tion】 】of NNRs. This【 417-hectar\e area【 is teemi】ng with an a】stonishing quant】ity of species; Natural England's 【Adam Wal/lace/ said at the event that【 "there are/ o/ver 40 species p\e\r\ s】quar【e metre of p【lants that exist on/ this sort of site and/ th【at supports a huge range \【of wildlife."In a】 press release, Nat/ural England highlights that th\is will be Lo\ndon's t\hird reserve, the second lar\gest after Richmon【d Park. \Its】 n\ew sta【tus as an 】NNR helps to 【pre/s\erve o\pportunities for t【h/e /385,0【】00/ res】ide\nts of Croydon to have contact with nature/ and connect on a 【more persona【l level wi】】th a 】wild\er side of Lond\on.It&【rsquo;s not only the/ res【id】en/ts of C/roydon, however, 】tha\t【 will benefit from the protection of th】is【 outdoor sp】a】ce. Just a 30 minute trai【n【\ ride /from Victoria Stat【ion, it al【so】 offers an easy escape\ from t\h\/e stuffiness of Central London.Rel【ated 】| Et/hiopi/a breaks W【orld Record by planting 350 million trees 】in one dayPicnic in Happy Va\lley&c】/opy; Helen J】eunet/EuronewsI sat down to enjoy my picnic on a benc/h surro】unded by this ra】re gra\【ssland, overlooking Happy Valley. On th\e way throug/h【\ /Coulsd】on, I had stopp】ed to see i/f I could find some b\o】ok】s to help with iden/t【ifying 【th】/e 【c\arpet o【f flowers tha】t now \e\n】vel/oped】【 \me and was rewarded with/ some vintage ch\ar【ity sho\p finds. /They ma】\y n/ot have been the most up-to-date/ guides【 but their gorgeous illustrati【ons were almost as captivating】 as the real th】【【ing\. T】he o【ld books【 ca\m【e with the adde/d 【bonus \that, once I was done with 】them, they 】could be donat\ed back to the shop for anot】her explo/rer to enjoy withou】t the waste of buying new.【Secondhand bo】o】\ks including flo【/wer an\d t】r/e】e identifi\cat/ion guides&co\py; Helene \Jeu】net/Eu】ronew/sEven in the middle of a weekday afte/rno\on】, I found people enjoyi\ng 】the reserve \at】 e/very po】int /in my wa/lk. /As I was \t】aking photographs, /one man p【asse\d com\ment /to a couple sat wi//th him, &ldqu】o;ar【en’t】 you/ goin/g to take any to/urist pictures?” It /transpir】\ed that th】ey w/ere visi/ting f\/rom 】Spain, and he】【 ha】d b\【rought them out/ to experience the re【markable pla/ce /in which he li\ved.】More tourists, this time【 an Italian family, s】top】ped to a/llow me to take their pic】t】ure a【s they【 cycled through th\e par\k. On the gras/s a l/ittle【 way ahead/ lay a c】hildren&r】squo;s activi/ty book wi\t//】h the scribbli【ngs of【 an e\/ager insect enthusia/st cove\r\ing 】the pag】e,\ its】 owner 】de\【eply engrossed in the【 identification o【f an uncooperative butterfly several me】tres away【. Outs】i/de of】 your】 usual wal【k\ing】 and】 cycling】 routes, Friends of Farthing Downs lists a considerable number of bridleways/ around thi/s area/ e】ncompassing 】a range of \difficulti/es that offer alt\ernative views o【f the reserve for the keen \equestrian.】Identify flowers amo\ng【 t【he vast wildflower meadows&【cop/y; Helene Jeunet/Euronew】sI/t is th【is /\kind of engag\eme\nt with the env\】iron\ment that Cro//ydon Council, the City/ of【 London C/\orporation and Natural Eng【lan【/d hope will encou【rag】e the 【local p\opu】lation, and t\hose from further afiel【d, to h\e\lp keep this vital natural resource intact. Nature re/】cov】ery is beneficia【l to improving na/tional health \b/ut also as a pot】ential defence against th\e future\ effects of c【limate \chang】e, ac】cording to Tony Juniper head of N】atural England.】Views 【across Happy Valley chalk g/r】asslands&co\p\】y; Helene Jeunet/Euron【ewsR【el\ated | "Love Water" c【a】mpaign t【o enc】ourage Britons to look aft【er /waterwaysCresting another hill, the encroaching 】housing estates signalled that I wa/s 】nearing the end/ of my w\alk. 】In a field just bef\ore the path came 【t/o an e【nd,\ I foun\d volun】teers in the process of h【elpi【ng to r【/estore plant 【【life after years of ove【rgrazing by sheep and \rabbits. I s\】at \and watch】ed /them for a\ while, 【considering how this change in【 status affected the real\ity of the local area’s role f/or】 the community. Turning/ the South L/ondon Downs i【nt】o\ an NNR doesn&r/squ/o;t n/e/cessarily cha【nge an awful lo/t about 【experiences of the area; i【t d【oes】n't add any 】flashy visitor centres o【r adventure playgro【und】\s. What it offers most practically is/ greater, mor】e【 cohesive protection\【 for the fl【ora and\】 f【auna that make it so /unique. In t\urn,【 protected green sp【aces offer chances for 【improved mental and physic【al health in【 local population】s. But what \else?Woodland path/ways of m\any different kinds&/copy\; 】Helen【e 】Jeunet/EuronewsInclusion of another loca/lly import】ant green space int】o the \grou【p of【 2【2 NNR\s that 【e/xist 【\across the\ UK rea/\l【ly se】emed important /as I watched the volunteers. At the ev/ent\ that /declared its new status, Int】erim Chief Execut【ive of Nat/ural E【【ngland【,【 Marian Spain called the ar\ea 'part of【 /a national set of jewels】 i【n】 \the\ c【rown.'N】NRs are \managed by Natural England on beh】alf o/f\ the】 nation, often /by vo\lunteers like those I saw, for the benefit of the】 public.】 They】\ are for all o\f us/ 【【to e\njoy, to bring our】se【lves per/\sonally closer to n【ature an/d perhaps to】 better appreci/ate【【 t【he diverse magnifi/cen】ce【 of /the e/nvironment. It offers /re/】al, material proo\f of\ posit/ive【 environmental impact by hu/mans, pro/【of that we can 【effectively look a【fter the world we live 【in if\ we approach it in small chunks. In the face \of increasi\ngl【y negativ/e n/ews surr/oundi\】ng the climate crisis, t【he 】pr\e【se\r\vation o/f these na\tio\nal】ly im【p】or\/ta/nt 】plac/es】 【】/off【ers a sense of hope. It is an advert fo】r collec【tive action; if /we all 【w【o】rk together/【, things can change for the better.A well】 earned dri】nk【 at The Fox pu】b&co\py;\【 Helene Jeunet【/Euro】newsWi\th a/ happy glow that only a few hours spent outside can bring, 【I rounded】 the f】inal corner to the end of my a\dventu\re, The Fox,【 an 18th century\ 】v\illage pub very m【uch\ a【t home in【 the\ picturesque rural surroundings】 that had so 【absorbed me for th\e la\st【 4 km\. T\he p】ub was anyt\hi】ng but Vic\torian \in its offerings【【 with a vegan menu 】available, something I took full advan【tage of and ordered a dairy\ free\ d\esert to /coo/l【 \me d\own. I retired to the gent】le sun \of t/he busy】 g\/ar【den【, cold drink and coconut ice cream 】in hand, fee/ling tired but】【 satisfied with my Frid\ay【 afternoo\n escape 【from the city.Share this article 】 More from p【laces5Ha6

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6Je9You’ve heard of offs\ett\ing, but】 what in the w【orld is carbon ins/etting?OmCE

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myk2\Te】xt sizeAaAa/A s\how【case of t】ho/usands of completel\y sustainable f\abrics is co】ming to London, or】ganiser The Sustainable【 Angle has announced.【The not-for-profit o/r/g/anisation has been a rele】ntl】\ess/ 【s【upporter of innovative/ lower\ carbon solutions to fashio/n&rsquo【;s biggest problems【 since 2010 and hopes that this/ \ev/ent 】will encourag/e ev/en/ more /designe】】rs and creators【 to adopt 】respo/n【sible solutions.】This will \be the ninth e/dit】ion of the Fut】ure Fabrics Expo which is the l\argest sho【wcase of sustainable fabrics of its k】ind. /With each f\abr【ic, informa/tion about where it has com/e from and 】/the/ environm\e/nta【l footpri/nt\ of【 its】 manufacture w\il/l be/【 provided. I【ncreas【ing tr\an/sparency in【 how our clothing i/s made is on】e\ way to he/lp bot【h designers and co【nsumers to 【make responsi\ble choice【s.Materials /o\n show will】 include 】the i/ncreas\i【ngly popular TENCEL Lyoce\ll and Modal as well as【 several fa/brics th】at take an innovative approach to post-cons【】umer recycling. Wi\th fashion waste /firm【ly in】 【the spotl【igh【t this season, there is a real dri【ve from /\consum】ers towa/rd more circular soluti【ons\】.These m\ode【rn approa\】ches will be e/xhibited alongside co/mpanies that ch】ampion t/rad\it\ional sustainable ma】te/rials/ like line/n and bast. Although less common i/n modern designs, these ancient f【】ab/rics are biodeg】radable and water-efficient. 【The plant fi【b【res fr】om 【】【whi】ch\ they are grown can ev\/en sequester C【O/ from the atmosphere.Founders of the expo, 】The【 Su】stainable Angle, hope t】o change the fash/ion i】ndustry \for the bet/ter s【o that, instea/d of stri】ppin/g resources an/】d p/oll\uting environments, \it can【 have a 】po/sit/i/ve impa【ct on n\ature an\/d the communities that 】\make o】ur cloth/es.Read/ More | W\【hat is Tencel? \T//h【e s\ustainable fabric e/v【eryone is 】talking /aboutClaire\ Bergk/am\p, Global Director of S【us【ta】inability and Innovation, Stella McCartney (left) in/ 【convers\ation/ with Orsol/a de Castro, Co-foun】der of Fashion Revolution】 (right)【\.Suzanne Plunkett /The 【Sustaina】\ble AngleAs well as showing off materials th\at designers can u】se t】o /decrease the e】nviro】nmental impact of t\heir own 【de】signs, the F/uture】 F【abrics\ Expo will also h【o\st panels to h\elp】/ ed/ucate atte\n】de/es and fac\ilitate discussion between industry exp【e【rts. Panels for\ the ninth Future F【abrics Expo will b/e】 focus\ed around r【egenera】t\i】ve, circul/ar ap】proaches to sust\ainable des【ign and how fashion can be a “powerful force /for positive change”.Future\【/ Fashion ExpoS\uzanne Plunkett /The 【Sustainable AngleAt 】a /p】an/el at last 【year’s event, Claire Bergkamp, Glob/al Director of Susta】】】inability and \Innovatio】n at Stella\ McCart/ney emphasised t\he value【 of eve\nts like t\his i】n helping to eradicate unsustainable mat】er\ial\s from t【he【 fashion in【du\/stry; “We have to \repl/ace them with i/nnova】t\ive, sustainable alternatives. The o/】ther half of inno】vati】on in the【】 future of fabrics has to be about rethinkin】g t【he syst】em【s 【tha】t we /have now…/【How can we find lower-im【pact ways o\f【】 】creating things?”.Part of the /Expo last year al】】so in【cluded two curated areas dedic\ated to fashion bra\nds fully embraci\ng responsib/le s】our\cing and circularity in thei【/r 【collections. New collaborati/on/s【 between leading designers and companies c/reating inno】vative new material\ technologies are the ideal outcome from this event.Suzanne Plunkett /The 】Sustainable A】ngle【The \【event will take place from the 29th-3】0th Januar/y 2020 at\ Victoria House, Bloomsbur\y Square, 】L】ondon. Tick/et registratio/n f/or de【【signers/ and brands /can be/ found h\er【e.Share this article \ 】More /from l\ifexFnd

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6I1ZThe European Union he/ld its fir【st post-B/rexit/【 summit h\alf【 a\ year before Br】//exit.And in\ orde】【r【 to 【get ev【erybody used \to\ it, The】resa May was 【absent.Which】 ma【de sense, as】 th\e meeting informally d/iscuss\ed what 【Europe's fut【ure 】priorities should look like.Nobody wanted h【er to be part of that c【onversa\【tio【\】n, and/ t【he B\ritish\ Pr】ime Minis/ter 【w\as /probably relieved not to h/ave to contribute to 】t/hat brain【s\torm\/ing.London might also hav/e been uncomfort【/able wit/h the venue: the 】city of Sib】iu in T/rans【ylvania】 where D\racula came from, especially with t/he /next Bre【xit】 deadline falling on H\alloween.T\he EU leaders /ag\reed o】n【\】 ten points regardin/】g the fut/ure o/f Europe.Cli/mate change featured only tenth as a/ prio/rity &n/dash;】 a fact that was \immediately critic【ized /by the E【uropean Gre【en】s, not present i】n S\ibiu.They called\】 it an insu\lt to th\e young people who have bee/n vo\icing\ their 【concerns about climate chan\ge for mont\hs.Yet not everything 【is【 gl/oomy when it /】/come t/\o\ environmental politics in Europe.The day before the summit,/ eight membe/r states 【【present【ed a plan to【 cut CO2 【emissions 【t【o net zero/ by 2050.Notably】 absent was a countr】y that cut emissions twice as muc【h/ a】s the EU average last ye【ar –\ Germany.Wher\eas E】urope was trying t\o tackle climate change politically,】 the world was dist】【racted by another crisis.One that could e【asily 】【】intensify in the months ahead【.I'm talking abou【t】 /the Iran nu\clear deal which seems to on the verge of collapsing/ after Teh/r【an a\nno【unced】 t】hat it plans to cease some co\mmitments.Yet【 the one behind/ the slow death of the agree】ment is Donald Trump.He walk【ed away from【 it last yea【r, showcasing hi\s dis\dain for diplomacy and what once was a huge multilateral br【eakthrough.Next weekOn Monday, Hungarian Prime Mini】ster Viktor Orba】n will meet US Pres\id【ent Donald T】rump【 at the White 【H/ouse.The meeting will pair t【wo populist/ leaders/ who want 【to restrict migrati/【on, /have vilified jou\rnalis\】】ts and fostered 】tensions with th\e E/uropean Union.On Tue\sday, Rus【si【an Fo】reign Minister 】Sergej 】L\avro【v hosts his US counterpart M\i/ke P【ompeo in Sotchi.Their 】talks will fo【cus /on finding 【a solu\tion to the escalating crisis/ in Venezuela.And on W\ednesday, the candidates f/or the presid\ency of \the E\U Com/miss【i【on wi】l【l 】deb/ate i//n the \European Parliament 】in【 Brus/sels.This debate will be t/he onl/y【 one t】o b】ring together all\ the lead /candid【ates vying to be 】the su【ccess【or of Jean-Claude J\u【ncke/r.Last WordThis time i】t goes to\ /Jean-Claude Juncker./】 T\】he EU Commission President, at/ a press conference, w【ho tal【ked\ ab/out hi【s bigg/est m【【istakes in office."The sec/o/nd mist/ake I made was】 to listen too car/efully/ to t【he Br【itish government, Ca\mer】on, because t【h【e then-Pri】me Minister asked me not to interfere, n\ot to intervene in t/he refe【rendum campaign.It was a mistake not to intervene an\d 】n】ot to interfere becaus\e we would hav\e been the onl】y ones to \destroy 【th】e lies, which \were ci【rculated aroun】d. \I was wr/ong to be silent a【t an important moment."Share th】is art\icleCopy/paste th】e a【rticle \video/ 【embe\/d link below:CopyShareTweet【SharesendSh\areTweetS】haresendMoreHideShareSendSh】areS/ha】reSh\areSendShareShareYou/ mi/ght also like 】 \ / 】 Five stories you may h】ave /\missed /\due to\ coronav【irus 】【 【 】【 】 \ 】 【 EU 【leaders【 m】e\et v【i【a video-conferenc/e - so do our c】orres/ponden】【ts / 【 】 \ / Brexi【t: U/K 'w\【【ill not seek tra//de talks ex\tension&\#039; despite Barnier【 having CO\VID-19【 More aboutEU SummitBre\xitJean-Claude Ju【nckerEnvironmental protection \ 】 【 【Brow\se today【9;s /tagsuUBz

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zAq9Text sizeAaAaThe d/ebate arou\nd the sustainability of le\a【ther p\rodu】ction is g【ai/ning m【omentum in th【】e fashion/【 industry. In 】recent y【ears, ra/ising awareness around the\ ecological impact o】f producin/g le】athe】r i/tems】 has prompt\ed a gro【w】】ing number of brands to rec\onside】r their u【se of the fa【bri】c in】 th】e/ir fashio【n lines/, as well as it has【 pushe/d new actors to \co】me up w\ith innovative solutions to creat\e more ecol【og\ically-【fr/】iendly le\ather/.The ec】ologica【l cost of leather productio】nT/he initial r】aw\ material for l\eather 【producti】/on is animal【 skin\ which orig【inates from ani】mal farming, a pro】ce\ss w\h【ich】 【usually rel】ie【s on huge amounts of feed, pasturel/and【, water, and】 fossil fuels with ne/gative ecologic\al impacts. However, leathe【r /is 】on】l】y a by-pro/duct in thi】s process, the animals being primarily raised for their me\【at/.Where/ the e【nvir【onmental cos/t of leat】her product\io\n really beco】mes visibl【e is at the /stage of the\ transformatio【n of the animal skin into the f】inal prod/uct. Since /leather is a perishable material, a number 】of methods have been used to st【abi【//lise t\【he raw mate【ri\al, and make it m\ore durable via t/h【e tanning process.This 】】is an indus【trial process that【 typically involves 【many ch\e】mical com】pounds and uses up a lot of water and energy. A number of hazardous mat\eri/】als a\nd /p】ollutants are/ releas\ed i】n 】the envir【onmen【t s\uch 【as mineral salts, lime slud】ge, sulfides, fo\rmaldeh\yd\e, coal-tar de/ri【vatives, a】nd various oil【s, dyes, and finishes (some o/f them cyani【de-bas【ed) are employed. . Water \i】s u【sed in】 high quantit】【y as a s/olvent, which is all the more problematic that a significa【nt n【umbe\r of tan【neries/ are lo【cate】\d in ar\id regions \of the world.To a】ddress these i【ssues, \the dev\elopment of new technologies t【o\ 】provide】 more ef【fici\ent processes for【 the pr\oduction of le】ather【 is under】way. So are efforts to promote the production of synth】etic leath\e\r, /w/hi】c/h could offer an interes【ting【】 alternative to th【e fas/hi【on indu【stry.Cow lea】\ther vs synthetic leatherFor 】change 】to happe】n in the leather i/ndustry tho】ugh, rob/ust assessme/nts of t\he/ dif/feren】t m】ethods us\ed in the ta【nn】ing process/ and compari\sons betw【ee\n cow lea】ther an\d other materi】als, are ne【ed\ed.Researchers have assessed the e【cological impact of different ta【nning methods to se【e if on【e was prefe】rable in t【】erms of its environment/al footprint.】 One o】f the techniques 【that some tanneries \employ to reduce the u【se\ of harmful che】micals is to 】resort to vege/table-tann【i【ng.This is an artisanal process that tak/【es advantage of /the t】an【ni\c acids na【】turally found i/】【】n some pl\】ants, by using the/ barks, branches,】 lea【ves or even s】\ome fruits in s/ome specific te\chniques. 【It is /【t\houg【ht to be more 【environmental/ly friendly than oth/e/r methods of processing /cow l\eather.To find out more,/ a 2017 stu【dy comp【a\r/ed this 【m【eth/o/d to more t\radit\ional 【methods using chemi】\cals suc\h a【\【s c/hromium-】/tanning, looking at th\e carbon, water, and energy 【footprint o\f the vege】\table】 】and chromium leather pro】ces/sing 】technology in 12 selecte/d tanneries in seven dif/ferent coun】/tries worldwide.The scientists act【【u】a【lly fo【und no sign/if【ican】t d\iff【erences in the fo【otpr【int of vegetabl/】e 】and chromium leather processes. Ho【wever, they cauti】on that this type of research is /challenging to do and /that tak/i】ng steps to improve the leather ind/ustry need to be base\d\ on evidence\-based resea\r【ch.“\Each tannery proved to be 【very individual, a\nd the\refore 】att【empting to pe/rform this type of analysis /without si【mply producin/g【 meaningle【ss generalities is 【a cha\llenge\ f【or companies, researcher\s, and regulator/s,&r】dquo; the 】researchers say. While【 /there is/\ little evide\nce \then that cho】osing a spec\ific m【ethod of leather tanning may be 【bette\r fo【】r the environment, \the evidence in favour of producing syntheti\c lea\ther ins】tead of leat】【her from /an\imals i\s mounting.Th】e 201】【 Pulse of T【he 】Fash/ion Industry Report published by the Global】 Fashion Agenda and The Bos/ton Con/\s】ult【ing Grou/p, was instrumental in highlig【ht【ing the\ idea that the prod】uctio/n/ of 】synthetic leather i\s less d】amaging /to the \environment/. It offer/ed 【some \of th【e most robus【t 】conclusions 【o】n th/e subject to date,】 p【ro】mpting\ 【stake】holders in the】 fashion indus/t\ry to switch to more ecological options, including synthetic leat【he】r【.Th】e /rep】o【rt indee\d/ showed \that among /all the materia】ls used in the fashion \ind】ustry, an】imal leather ranked thi【rd as the main contributor to global\/ warmi\ng. I【t also came first as the 【most damaging mat【erial/ when resea\rchers looked 【at th\】e issue of eutrophicat【】ion : its man【ufa】ctu【re was【 associated w】ith a relea/se of excessive chemical compounds and nu/trients/ into bodi【es of w】ater, frequently due to runoff from】 th【e land, causing\ dense growth of plant l\if【e\ and deat\/h /of 】anima【l\ life from lack of 【oxygen.More impor】tantl【y, the report found that synthetic leather /had on average on】ly /【a third of the environme】n】tal \impact of【【 cow leather. 】Switching to/ alternative materi】\【/a\/ls, including synthetic leather【, could thus directl\y improve a p\roduct&rs【quo;s 】ecological foot/prin】t.Gro】wing number of initiativesThe \mes【s【age【 has progressively\ been recei\ved\ and a growing numbe\r of initiatives i/llustrat】e the mo/ve to abandon cow l】eath】er for its synt】hetic a【lternatives. Exa\mples of a\dva/nces rely o【n the development a】nd the us【e of non/-convent/iona/【l fib/e\rs made fr【om substances /su【ch as c/itrus/ juice, grape 】plan/ts, or kelp, bioengin/eered \/leather, and the furt】her【 /promotion of bast f【ibers.In its m】】o/st re\ce/nt 2018 edition, the Pulse of Th【e Fashion In/dustry Report presen【te\d a num\ber of projects carri/ed by companies dedicated to su\stainable fashion and t【o pro/ducing synthetic【 le【at【her at the lowest ecological c/ost.Mi\lan-based compa【ny Vegea \is fo\r in【stance working to crea【te leather that is 】m/a【de entirely fr【o【m【】 grapes skin, stalks, an\d seeds and for th/is, it【 won th【e 20】17 H&M Global Change Award. Another good e\xa【【mple is the company known 【a】s 【Provenance Biofabrics which pr】oduces b】ioengineere【d leather【 by pr】ogramming /collagen molec】ules to self-assem\ble.These are 】just some of the initiative【s/ under d\eve【lopment, \and the f/i】eld is now undergoing a period of inno】】va【】tion and dynamism】. /Exactly】 what 2019 will bring is 【uncle【ar】, \b【ut one thing is cer【tain\ : the leather industry 【is/\ profoundly changing to b/ecome more sustainable.Writer: L\éa Su【rugueShare th】is article 【 】 More from stylegCru

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